Food Allergy Research

Does Early Exposure to Nuts Lower a Child’s Allergy Risk?

ImageAre children more likely to develop a peanut or tree nut allergy if their mothers eat nuts during pregnancy or while nursing? Over the years, a number of studies have attempted to answer this question, but the results have been inconclusive. According to a new FARE-funded study, eating nuts during pregnancy does not cause food allergies in children. Further, although more studies are needed, it is possible that eating nuts may prevent a child from developing a food allergy.

In an article published online by JAMA Pediatrics on December 23, a research team affiliated with Harvard Medical School reported on their study, which suggests that mothers who do not have allergies and who eat nuts during pregnancy may lower their children’s risk of developing a peanut or tree nut allergy. The study, which was funded by FARE, received considerable media coverage.

The team, led by Dr. A. Lindsay Frazier, looked at the history of 8,205 participants in the Growing Up Today Study 2 (GUTS2) – children who were born between 1990 and 1994. The researchers reviewed records of the mothers’ diet immediately before and during pregnancy, and shortly after the infants’ birth. Of this group, 308 children had a food allergy, including 140 cases of peanut or tree nut allergy.

The incidence of peanut or nut allergies was significantly lower among the children of mothers who did not have food allergies themselves and who ate nuts at least five times per month compared to those who ate these foods less than once per month. “Our study supports the hypothesis that early allergen exposure increases the likelihood of tolerance and thereby lowers the risk of childhood food allergy,” the researchers concluded. They noted, however, that additional studies are needed. “The data are not strong enough to prove a cause-and-effect relationship,” commented one of the authors, Dr. Michael Young. “Therefore, we can’t say with certainty that eating more peanuts during pregnancy will prevent allergy in children. But we can say that peanut consumption during pregnancy doesn’t cause peanut allergy in children.”

A study that should shed more light on this issue is currently underway. The LEAP (for “Learning Early About Peanut Allergy”) Study, conducted by Dr. Gideon Lack and colleagues at King’s College London, has been following 640 children since infancy to determine whether or not exposure to peanuts early in life can prevent the development of peanut allergy. This study, which is co-funded by the National Institutes of Health and FARE, should be completed in 2014.

75 thoughts on “Does Early Exposure to Nuts Lower a Child’s Allergy Risk?

  1. An interesting study. I have struggled with that thought all along. I do not have any allergies, food or environmental, and I ate nuts all throughout my first pregnancy. When my son developed severe nut allergies I was devastated thinking it was something I did. This makes me feel better. I did not eat any nuts or allergens during my second pregnancy and my daughter does not have any food allergies. So though I cant explain it as there are no food allergies in our family besides my son, I feel better reading this study.

    1. Same story here. It would be interesting if they could address the children who ended up with severe nut allergies with mom who ate pb and has no allergies.

      I’m not sure what to believe. I’ve had guilt over eating pb while pregnant. I didn’t eat it for my other pregnancies and my other three have no allergies.

    2. Hello Julie, I too ate nuts daily and peanut butter toast practically every morning because I heard it was good to eat during pregnancy. My daughter was diagnosed with severe peanut, tree nut and coconut allergies. I immediately thought I was at fault. It would be nice to know the cause.

    3. Same boat! My son, born in 1990, has severe allergy to peanuts and seems to grow more sensitive to some other legumes as the years have passed. Funny thing…I was really not much of a peanut eater prior to that pregnancy, but recalled during my pregnancy “WoW! I am eating peanuts alot!”

    4. I ate PB&J sandwich every day for lunch while I was pregnant with my first son. He has a peanut & tree nut allergy. I have no allergies. This is opposite of what the study has proved. Makes you wonder????

    5. Julie, you’re right to not beat yourself over the head with this. Sometimes our own experiences and perceived correlations seem so strong that they must be true, but, as you’ve recognized, this study seems to negate your experience (which should give you comfort!).

    1. same goes for me! my nutritionist strongly suggested having nuts in the car if i were to get hungry and eat that instead of something unhealthy during my gestational son has nut allergy and i researched this question over and over! ..But my understanding is that there is predispostion for allergies therefore the child could also have food allergies on top of it. my sons food allergies are not severe and they keep coming down with numbers so I am hopeful! we just avoid right now and have epipens etc

  2. I have identical twins (diamniotic), and ate a lot of peanut butter during my pregnancy with them. One has a severe allergy to peanuts, as well as other tree nuts, the other has no food allergies. I had a singleton pregnancy after the twins, and had no peanut or nut products during that pregnancy. That child has not been exposed to it all and has tested negative.

      1. Same case with me – diamniotic, monochorionic identical twins. I also ate lots of peanut butter during pregnancy — one has severe peanut/tree nut allergy and the other has no food allergies.

  3. I must be in the other category. My pregnancy was in 1996 and I ate peanut butter and jelly sandwich almost every morning and drank a glass of chocolate milk. I have no food allergies and my son experienced his first of 14 full blown anaphylactic reactions. He is also allergic to all tree nuts, all shell fish, latex, all dairy products and has cross reactive allergies to many fruits. He is now 17 and hasn’t out grown any and now has EOE and is involved in a research study at Hopkins in Baltimore. My daughter is now pregnant and will not eat any nuts seeing what happened to her brother.

  4. I probably consumed the same amount of peanut products with all 4 pregnancies and only my 4th child is severely allergic. No other peanut allergies exist in the family-immediate or extended.

    1. It’s my understanding that any kind of allergy (especially food allergies) put your child at risk. So the fact that I have food allergies put my offspring at 50% of food allergies. My son does not have the same allergies as I do. (Although like a venn diagram, we do have a few in common).

  5. Very interesting. I also ate Peanut Butter and Jelly Sandwiches throughout my entire pregnancy. My son was diagnosed with a peanut allergy at the age of 20 months. With my next pregnancy, I plan on not eating ANY peanuts and see what happens.

  6. I do not have any food or other allergies and neither does anyone in either side of our families. My first pregnancy, 23 years ago, I did not consume any peanut products and my oldest child ate his first peanut around 2 yrs old and is allergy free. My second pregnancy, 20 years ago, I ate peanut butter throughout my nine months and continued while nursing my son for his first year. At 23 months he had his first bite of peanut butter, spat it out, and went into anaphylactic shock a few minutes later. I totally disagree with this research findings.

  7. Interestingly, I too ate peanut butter and other nuts during my first pregnancy on a regular basis and my son has severe peanut and tree nut allergies. I was told to not eat ANY nuts during my second pregnancy and my second son has no known food allergies – he is now 5.

  8. I ate peanut butter just about every day throughout my pregnancy and my daughter has a very severe peanut allergy (first reaction at 14 months). We have no family history of food allergies. I find the study’s results disturbing because I truly believe that the peanut exposure contributed to her allergy. I completely avoided PB during my 2nd pregnancy and my 2nd child has no allergy. Clearly more research needs to be done.

  9. Studies must also factor in the father’s food allergy history. I have no food allergies, but my daughter was diagnosed at 4 months (RAST) with multiple food allergies, and confirmed again at 1year. My husband has food allergies, some that he out grew, so it was furthest from my mind to stay away from peanuts/milk when I was nursing. I personally think the early exposure to the protiens and her family health history on her father’s side lead to her developing food allergies.

  10. This study is not valid to me. I was a ‘heavy’ peanut butter eater during pregnancy:) I don’t eat meat so this was my major source of protein. I ate Reese Piece like crazy too. My son was tested early because of a digestive issue and had the allergy as early as 1 year. He was anaphylactic and still is. So eating nuts or peanuts during does not seem to be a valid stop to an allergy.

  11. I ate a lot of nuts during my pregnancy. We were told to do so because of the nutrional value of nuts. My son has life-threatening allergies to tree nuts. I am just one person but all of the people in our group that have children with nut allergies did the same thing. There needs to be pure research done instead of research based on reporting or reviews of other studies.

  12. I was pregnant in 1999 and ate peanut butter like crazy because it was cheap and it did not make me puke. My son is allergic to peanuts, egg, milk and beef. So for pregnancy #2 they said to avoid all those things. #2 son born in 2001 has no allergies. So I ate carefully again in 2009 with #3, but he is allergic to peanut, egg, milk, beef plus corn, wheat, oats, tree nuts, tapioca, beans, peas… The two who look alike are the ones with the severe allergies and asthma. I can only assume there was some genetic roll of the dice at play. The allergic boys reacted even to my breast milk, so I am annoyed when I read suggestions about introducing foods earlier or later. Unless a baby is eating just formula, they get proteins from mom. So delaying a food to age 2 is pointless, since they already got it. And introducing it as soon as they can eat solid food is pointless, since they already got it. Right? Most days I just want to pull my hair out in frustration.

  13. BS. I had tree nuts and peanuts on my desk for morning sickness. I needed the salt. My daughter is now 11 and allergic to everything. First ER visit at 9 months.
    Eggs, treenuts, peanuts, shellfish and ALL the seeds. She is “off the charts’ on peanuts so we carry an epi. We thought that I caused the allergy by eating the nuts while I was pregnant. There is still no good research on this.

  14. I normally didn’t eat peanut butter but did when I was pregnant. Both my girls developed peanut allergies. Unfortunately, I don’t think they are any closer to solving this mystery!

  15. I have heard Dr. Sampson say that there is a difference between peanut butter and peanuts. Countries that eat a lot of peanuts (but not peanut butter) have lower rates of allergies. I wonder if the study looked at both peanuts and peanut butter. I am the mother of 4. With #4, I went to town eating PB2 while breastfeeding. PB2 is a fat free dehydrated peanut butter that you reconstitute with water – great for pregnancy weight loss! Kid #4 developed a very severe peanut allergy. No other allergies in the family. I cannot help but to wonder if it was the PB2 while breastfeeding.

  16. THIS ARTICLE TOTALLY DOES NOT APPLY TO OUR HOUSEHOLD. I have no food allergies and my husband has no food allergies as well. With my first child I ate peanut butter on toast every day…4 to 5 pieces of toast a day. She was born with no allergies. With my second child i ate the same amount of peanut butter on toast….she was born 5 weeks early having a reaction to peanuts. She now has a severe anaphylactic allergy to peanuts, as well as nuts, eggs,dairy,latex, bananas, kiwi, some medicines and some anaesthesias. With my third child there was no peanut butter at all, no trace of peanuts or nuts in anything that I ate, etc. She was born with minimal allergies to eggs, dairy, no allergy to peanuts or nuts BUT by the age of 5 she had a significant allergy to peanutsand hazelnuts. Not as high as my second daughter but still has an anaphylactic allergy nonetheless. So you see, three possible pregnancy ways with regards to peanut butter and three totally different results.

  17. Also would like to mention a person who led a food allergy group in our area. The group leader had food allergies in her family so during her pregnancy she avoided the top allergens… this resulted in a very uncommon diet. Her son developed multiple food allergies but not to any top allergens, he was only allergic to the uncommon foods she only ate while pregnant. I know, it’s only a study of one, but still very interesting.

  18. First pregnancy I ate peanut butter every single day, a yr later with second pregnancy I ate it, but less first is a level 6 severely allergic to peanuts, my second child is level 3 to peanuts. Both children also tested positive for tree nuts. I would not recommend eating peanuts while pregnant.

  19. I think more studies need to be done especially after reading the above information and my experience with my own kids. I craved peanut butter during the time I was pregnant with my son and he had his first anaphylactic reaction at 11 months of age. He had not been fed peanut butter until this time. His only exposure had been gestational. My other two children are also allergic to peanuts and all nuts, but I don’t recall how much I ate nuts or peanuts during those pregnancies.

  20. I do not have any food allergies. I ate a ton of peanuts and peanut butter during my pregnancy, and after my daughter was born. I breastfed her from day 1 through toddlerhood. She had trouble sleeping through the night and then she was diagnosed with a peanut allergy. As soon as I cut peanut products out of my diet (and the allergen had metabolized out of my body and, therefore, out of my breast milk), my daughter magically began sleeping through the night. Query: did my daughter’s exposure to the peanut allergen during my pregnancy, or during breast feeding, cause her allergy… or was it something else????

  21. I have no food nor environmental allergies. With my first pregnancy, I ate a ton of nuts/peanuts since I love nuts – nuts in my cereal, on my salad, in my dessert, etc; plus at the office I kept a large jar of dry roasted peanuts, which I nibbled at all day. My son, now 16, has an anaphylactic allergy to peanuts; is also allergic to tree nuts, eggs and tuna and suffers from Asthma.

    During my second pregnancy, I stayed away from all nuts/peanuts. My daughter, now 13, has no food allergies nor Asthma.

    After hearing and reading many stories like mine, it is heard to believe this study!

  22. I’m in the same spot as all posts already made. I have no food allergies and have always been a huge supporter of the peanut butter industry, including and especially during pregnancy. My son was diagnosed with peanut and tree nut allergies at two years old. He was nursed and I continued to eat nut products, but did not feed them directly to him.
    I realize the article states that it is recognized that more research is needed to support the cause and effect relationship, I question the standing that they feel their study supports the hypothesis.
    I will continue to look forward to more research on the matter as it comes out.

  23. I have no food allergies, no family history of food allergies, nor does my husband. I’ve never been able to explain this:

    1st pregnancy, ate peanuts,nuts, nursed for 2 years while eating peanuts/nuts and he is allergic to peanuts and tree nuts.
    2nd pregnancy, did not eat any peanuts, nuts, nursed for 2 years, he is not allergic to any foods.
    3rd pregnancy,did not eat any nuts, peanuts, nursed almost 2 years and she is allergic to peanuts and tree nuts.

  24. I have often wondered if there is a link between mothers’ diet and child’s allergies. During my first pregnancy I had a very healthy diet, including peanut butter crackers every day as a snack. Following my son’s birth, I breastfed him for 12 months. I have no food allergies, yet my son was diagnosed with allergies to dairy, egg, fish, peanuts and tree nuts at 12 months of age (including environmental and dog allergies), with peanuts being the most extreme. I had two more pregnancies following this one, did not have as healthy a diet as the first, did not consume peanuts or tree nuts of any kind, and the two children do not have an allergy to peanuts or tree nuts, or any allergy that their brother has.

  25. What of pregnant women who have a problem with peanuts, but were never symptomatic or anaphylactic? What of pregnant women who ate peanuts EVERY DAY (or more than 5/month) at the suggestion of ob/gyn? Your test and results do not lead to conclusion that nut consumption by pregnant woman does not lead to peanut allergy. My first child is allergic after daily peanut consumption, my other 4 are not after nut-free pregnancies. Dangerous reporting.

    1. I agree. This is dangerous reporting. These kinds of reports that are published don’t help our children or the stigma attached to who is at ‘fault’.

  26. I think it’s not peanut or no peanut, it’s all the damn GMO food. When I got GD I started to follow the strict diet they give with the stupid snacks they recommend. And all GMO based. I wish I had not done that

  27. I’m curious about parents who DO have allergies… I also have twins (fraternal) and one is allergic to multiple foods and the other has no allergies that we know of (they are 5yo). I also have multiple food allergies and though I test allergic to peanuts, I tolerate them well most of the time. I did eat peanuts and LOTS of almonds during pregnancy and my son test allergic to both so far… He has had a severe reaction from being in the same room while peanuts were being shelled but no ER visits related to allergies yet. I suspect EoE in both of us.

  28. interesting how many people here have posted that they ate nuts during pregnancy and their child ended up with nut allergies. hmm… makes me question this study! i, too, ate nuts during pregnancy and while breastfeeding. i also ate a lot of breakfast cereal with flax seeds. in utero, my son would hiccup for extended periods of time after i ate. while breastfeeding, my son had eczema, hives on his face (which we didn’t recognize at the time as being hives), and severe reflux. interestingly, when i stopped breastfeeding (at almost a year of age), his eczema, hives and reflux disappeared. he has since been diagnosed with NUMEROUS allergies, almost all of which correspond to what i was eating while pregnant and breastfeeding! he is no longer allergic to peanuts and sesame, both of which i ate very little of while breastfeeding. nut and seed (mustard and flax) allergies are severe. i think food allergy researchers are barking up the wrong tree.

  29. For me this is not true. I do not have any food allergies. I ate nuts/peanuts and had peanut butter just about everyday with my first pregnancy and my child is allergic to peanuts!

  30. Seems this study does not apply to me either and I agree that this is dangerous reporting. Plus the blame game is so very annoying and upsetting to good parents who do everything they can for their kids and are trying to figure out how to live with these allergies. I ate a lot of peanuts when pregnant with my son and he is very allergic to peanuts. Then, no peanuts or tree nuts when pregnant with my daughter and she is not allergic. I believe it is something else and would love the researchers to keep looking at other things like GMO’s (something else – be creative) because everything I have heard is that it is a mixed bag when it comes to pregnancies. And, yes, “may” can apply to anything. And, my son’s 13 year old friend who has eaten peanuts his whole life now suddenly is allergic – at 13. 2 very scary runs to the emergency run this past month. how does that figure into this whole thing? Baffling.

  31. I ate a peanut butter sandwich every day for lunch for years prior to my first pregnancy. During this pregnancy, I could not tolerate peanut butter; and, interestingly enough, this child is severely allergic to peanuts (diagnosed at 2 years of age). I did not eat peanut butter or have it in my house during my second pregnancy and this child does not have any known food allergies. Go figure.

  32. Interesting study, i had severe hyperemesis during the first trimester of pregnancy. The only foods I could tolerate were peanut butter and jelly and eggs. My son has a severe peanut allergy and an egg allergy. He is now 15 and has outgrown the egg allergy. Nobody else in our immediate family has a peanut or food allergy.

  33. Add me to the long list that ate a ton of peanut butter and had a peanut allergic child. I thought I was doing a good thing to get my protein when I was feeling less than stellar. Continued eating it while exclusively breastfeeding while my newborn struggled with terrible eczema and gastrointestinal issues. Had his allergies tested (RAST) at 5 months and lo and behold – peanut allergy. With my next child, I ate no nuts and she has no food allergies.

  34. I had no peanuts of any kind during my first pregnancy. My daughter has no allergies. I ate Peanut and Jelly like it was going out of style with my 2nd pregnancy and at 18 months my son was diagnosed with a Peanut and Tree Nut Allergy. He also had an Egg and Milk Allergy but out grew them. He is now 12 and still has the Peanut Allergy, His last test came up negative for the Tree Nut Allergy.

  35. First pregnancy – I ate peanut butter and jelly sandwiches and snacked on trail mix with lots of different nuts almost daily for a good source of protien. He developed ezcema at 3 months old and we did allergy testing at 1 and he tested positive for peanuts and tree nuts.
    Second pregnancy – ate none because of my other son’s allergies, we don’t keep it in the house and I just don’t eat them anymore. No ezcema and no allergies.
    I understand what they are saying, I have no allergies so I’m not sure what makes me different. Though looking at the entries above, I don’t appear to be so different

  36. I am in the same spot as many of you. I had GD and found PB and saltines to be a good snack that wouldn’t raise my blood sugar. Every single night I had that. My daughter had peanut, tree nut, egg, shellfish and beef allergies. she also has eczema and asthma. Now 10, she has outgrown the beef and egg allergies but still has the others and terrible eczema. I don’t agree with the findings of this study. Seems to me they used the wrong people as subjects. I think a lot more studying needs to be done before women can safely consume these allergens while pregnant.

  37. My sister ate nuts throughout her pregnancy, and her son has peanut and tree nut allergies, along with fish and shellfish. I avoided ALL nuts during my pregnancy and my son is allergic to peanuts and tree nuts. Both boys had very bad eczema when they were babies and I was told that adults with asthma with most likely have a child with eczema. I have asthma, my sister does not. The only thing that my sister and I both suffer from is environmental and animal allergies.

  38. The study and media coverage while posing an interesting question, sadly does not move us very far in getting to what we want to know – How are allergies caused/triggered? How can they be prevented? How can they be “cured”? One thing that puzzles me is the rapid explosion of allergies. People did have them in the past, but the numbers were far fewer and the percent of the population was smaller. So, I’m thinking that something must have changed in our environment, medicine/food chain, biology to make us (humans) more susceptible to triggering the development of allergies.

    1. I agree with you! I also think it is interesting if you compare rate of allergies in our country with that of other countries. I think environment is key (if not a major part of the answer). GM foods and pesticides are very suspicious to me!

      1. I agree. I can’t grow my own veggies and meat but I constantly think that the food we eat has changed so much..can anyone own that it may not be the mother’s fault but what the food industry is giving us.

      2. Heather, (agree!) Is anyone actually blaming the mother? it is NOT THE MOTHER’S FAULT!!!! What she eats may have an effect on the outcome but obviously there are other factors here -a predisposition of some sort! Too many twins included here where one is and one isn’t allergic, and they were both exposed to the same foods of the mother and mother’s milk, etc.! I have rarely felt guilt over what I ate while pregnant. I feel guiltier that I made the choice to have biological children knowing that each had a 50% chance of food allergies.

  39. I think much more careful and controlled studies need to be conducted before any conclusions can be made. There are so many confounding factors that could be involved. I am yet another example of a person who has no history of peanut allergy (none in my family or my husband’s family either), but craved Snicker’s bars and peanut butter during my two pregnancies and ended up with two children with severe allergies to peanuts. The allergist told me that since my son never ate any peanuts since we were a peanut-free household by that time, he must have been exposed to peanuts in utero and as an infant during breast-feeding (since I also ate peanuts a lot while breast-feeding both children) He said that my son must have developed antibodies to the peanut protein during his early childhood development once his immune system began maturing. He also said that there is a strong genetic component in developing an allergy to peanuts, another factor that must be considered in these studies if investigators want to ever really understand the trend of increasing peanut allergies. I highly doubt they will have definitive answers anytime soon.

  40. I do not have any allergies. I did not eat many nuts or any peanut butter during my first pregnancy and my daughter at 30 years old still does not have any allergies. My second pregnancy resulted in a miscarriage at the end of the first trimester. During my third pregnancy and later while nursing my son I did eat a lot of peanut butter as it was my 2 y/o daughter’s favorite lunch. My son seemed to have a natural aversion to peanut butter sandwiches when introduced at the appropriate age, and at 2 y/o he presented with severe allergies to almost all tree nuts and peanuts. Now at 28y/o he is still severely allergic to peanuts, tree nuts and at 15 y/o he became allergic to sesame seeds.

    With my personal, real life experiences, I disagree with the conclusions of the Harvard Medical School’s research study!

  41. I ate peanut butter through my pregnancy and nursing. My daughter had a taste of peanut butter at 11 months. She is highly allergic. Not sure how I could have exposed her any earlier between in utero, nursing, and early ingestion. Totally frustrating article.

  42. I’m concerned about the validity of this study. It is already widely accepted that there is a genetic component to allergies and that children of people with allergies are more likely to develop them also. It is, therefore, not surprising to see that mothers who do not have allergies and who eat nuts during pregnancy may lower their children’s risk of developing a peanut or tree nut allergy. Because of the genetic component, I would find it more relevant to study mothers who do have allergies and the resulting risk of their children developing a nut allergy.

  43. I lived on PB products and drank gallons of milk before, during and after my pregnancy. My daughter, when tested at 20 months was allergic to 35 foods, peanuts & dairy were severe. She outgrew everything except peanuts & dairy and to this day at 21, is still anaphylaxis to peanuts & dairy. Neither my husband or I had food allergies. I always felt there was a correlation, especially after my obstetrician told me that the peanut protein was isolated in breast milk in 1995(I believe).

  44. I developed a fish allergy when I was 17 years old and neither I, nor anyone else that I can think of in my family or my husband’s had a nut allergy. I ate cashews and pistachios throughout my entire pregnancy. My daughter was diagnosed with severe peanut and tree nut allergies when she was 2. I don’t agree with this study. Up until recently, it was advised that expecting moms avoid nuts during pregnancy, now it’s encouraged?? I think that some of these study results can be interpreted either way depending on the results the researchers are hoping to have. I read somewhere that an allergy and an intolerance are two different things and that ingesting certain foods may cause an intolerance of some sort, not an allergy. It also stated that allergies are formed when there is exposure to a protein via the blood (injection) and the body develops an antibody against that protein (sensitization) and only after that initial exposure will you have an allergic reaction upon ingestion or contact with that protein. I believe that these studies are not looking in the correct direction because it’s medically understood what causes allergies and anaphylaxis and it has very little to do with what we as mothers are eating or introducing to our children to eat either too early or too late. I believe immunization are very important, but why are no studies being done to test if the increase in the number of immunizations, the lowering of babies ages to begin these immunizations, the combining of multiple immunizations into one combo shot and the ingredients in a lot of these immunizations? I’ve read that peanut oil and eggs are used. Is this true? Why is there not a more aggressive approach to understanding this mystery of why our children have so many allergies and why so severe? I apologize for going on and on, but I am just tired of well educated researchers, scientists , doctors, etc. doing the same studies repeatedly and flip-flopping the results every so many years. Yet 20+ years later, still no answers. My daughter just started Kindergarten and it has been a nightmare trying to convince the school that these food allergies are to be taken very serious.

  45. I have no allergies but my husband has many seasonal allergies and some unknown allergies. I have a son and twin daughters. I ate peanut butter and trail mix throughout all my pregnancies. My son only has seasonal allergies,cats and only one of my twin daughters(fraternal) has a severe peanut allergy as well as seasonal allergies. My other twin has no allergies at all. Most of us are reading this article because we have a child with food allergies. I know so many people who ate peanut butter/peanuts during their pregnancies and their children have no allergies and they aren’t going to be reading this article to tell us their story. I don’t think it has anything to do with what we eat and having twins one with and one without is strong evidence to support that. Don’t feel guilty if you ate peanut butter I think it’s our environment and what our country is doing to our food.

    1. I couldn’t agree more about our environment and what is happening to our food. I think we all wish FARE would not have published this article as well as the people who did not complete a valid study.

  46. Nobody on either side of our family has allergies to tree nuts. As a matter of fact, both my husband and I grew up around nut trees! I ate nuts whenever I wished. It was no big deal. I have no idea why my second child ended up with tree nut allergies.

  47. I have no food allergies nor does my husband. I ate everything while pregnant and nursing and have a 15 yr old daughter who has severe nut and seafood allergies. I also breastfed her exclusively for her first 6 months. Her first reaction was to eggs/mixed with a bit of milk at 9 months. Because of her dairy allergy, I gave her soy formula from 9 months to 2 years. At 2 she has since outgrew the dairy/egg allergy. A few years ago she was then diagnosed with a soy allergy.
    I do not agree with these findings.

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